Epilepsy or seizures

 

Epilepsy

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Epilepsy is one of the common and old disease in the world, now a days around 60 million people worldwide. This a neurological disease characterized by uncontrolled abnormal movement of the body, called seizure. The name Epilepsy from the Greek word "epilepsia" the meaning is to seize. These seizures are transient signs and symptoms of abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Epilepsy is can see all age group at ant time,but more in young children or people over the age of 65 years however.
Epilepsy is usually controlled, but cannot be cured with medication, although surgery may be considered in difficult cases.
Epilepsy should not be understood as a single disorder most of the time it’s related to some other diseases that involving episodic abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Men and women with epilepsy this may related to migraine, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disorders, along with gastrointestinal disorders, pulmonary disorders, dementia, chronic fatigue, lack of sleep and rest, mood disorders, anxiety, and personality disorders, drug withdrawal syndrome etc.

Most common 10 Symptoms of epilepsy

There is a different types of epileptic seizure, each with their own set of symptoms. Some of the common symptoms listed here

Seizures are mainly categorised as partial or generalised, depending on the degree to which your brain is affected.

1) Partial seizures

  Partial seizures affect only part of your brain. Symptoms of partial seizures depend on which part of your brain is affected.

2) Simple partial seizures

During a simple partial seizure, you will be fully conscious. If you have this type of seizure you may have one or more of the following symptoms:
> a sense of ‘déjà vu’ (the feeling of having done something before)
> a feeling of fear or joy
> a funny taste or smell
numbness, tingling or ‘pins and needles’ in part of your body
involuntary
> jerky movements or twitching in part of your body
> seeing flashing or coloured lights
> hallucinations

3) Complex partial seizures

In this a larger part of brain and often last longer than other types of epileptic seizure. You may be only partly conscious and probably won’t remember the seizure. Symptoms include
> making lip-smacking or chewing movements with mouth
> doing repetitive movements such as fiddling with your clothing
> wandering around in a confused way
> making kicking movements with your arms or legs
> talking nonsense, muttering or mumbling

4) Generalized seizures

Generalised seizures affect all or most of your brain. You will lose consciousness and won’t remember what happened. There are several different types of generalised seizure including those described below.

5) Tonic-clonic seizures

Also called ‘grand-mal’ seizures, tonic-clonic seizures are the most common type of generalised seizure. There are two stages – the ‘tonic’ phase followed by the ‘clonic’ phase. You can also have either the tonic or the clonic phase alone.

During the tonic phase, there is

> lose consciousness,
> have stiff muscles, which can make you lose your balance and fall to the ground,
> bite your tongue or cheek,

During the clonic phase there is

> jerking muscles
> lose control of your bladder or bowel
> become very pale
> may be confused and drowsy
> have a headache
< want to go to sleep after coming round.

6) Atonic seizures

During an atonic seizure (also called a drop attack) the muscles in your body relax and you go floppy. You may fall forwards to the ground, which can sometimes cause you to injure yourself.

7) Myoclonic seizures

Your legs, arms, head or whole body will jerk in this type of seizure. This often happens just after you have woken up.

8) Absence seizures

Absence seizures are also known as ‘petit-mal’ attacks and happen mainly in childhood. This kind of seizure doesn’t involve falling down or having involuntary jerking movements. You will probably lose awareness, look blank and your eyelids might flutter. You may just look as if you’re daydreaming.

9) Nocturnal seizures

These seizures occur when you’re asleep – during the day or night.

10) Secondary generalized seizures

this start as a partial seizure (either simple or complex) and develop into a generalised seizure.

Treatment of Epilepsy

Avoid triggers
Medication
Surgery

Treat the triggers that cause seizures

             If the patient know the triggers of their seizures so the patient can avoid this triggers this help to control epilepsy. Keeping a diary to record your seizures may help you to identify any triggers. It can also help you to notice if there are any changes in the length or frequency of your seizures. The common triggers are

> Sleep, lack of sleep can cause seizure
> don’t miss the dose of epilepsy medicine
> please don’t miss the meals
> avoid alcohol or illegal drugs can cause epilepsy
> Avoid stress
> hormonal changes, for example, at certain times of the menstrual cycle in women – this is called catamenial epilepsy
> high temperature can cause epilepsy, if there is any fever take proper medicines

Medicines

            A lot of medicines available for epilepsy. Epilepsy cannot be ‘cured’ with medication, but its very effective control of seizure. Different type of medicine used for the treatment of symptoms. right type and strength of medication is essential other wise a lot of side effects will occur.

Common medicine used in epilepsy
Banzel,Carbamazepine,Carbatrol,Clobazam,Clonazepam,Depakene,
Depakote,Depakote,Diastat,
Diazepam,Dilantin,Ethosuximide,
Felbatol,Felbamate,Frisium
,Gabapentin,Gabitril,Inovelon, Keppra,Keppra,Klonopin,Lamictal,
Lamotrigine,Levetiracetam, Lorazepam, Luminal,Lyrica,Mysoline,Neurontin, Oxcarbazepine,Phenobarbital,
Phenytek,Phenytoin,Primidone,
Rufinamide,Sabril,Tegretol, Tegretol,
Tiagabine,Topamax,Topiramate
,Trileptal,Valproic Acid,Vimpat, Zarontin,Zonegran,Zonisamide.

Surgical treatment for epilepsy

             Surgery is an alternative for some people whose seizures cannot be controlled by medications. It has been used for more than a century, but its use dramatically increased in the 1980s and ’90s, reflecting its effectiveness as an alternative to seizure medicines. The benefits of surgery should be weighed carefully against its risks, however, because there is no guarantee that it will be successful in controlling seizures.

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